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Title: Circadian variation with a diurnal bimodal profile on scent-marking behavior in captive common marmosets (callitrhix jacchus)
Authors: Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro de
Moura, Silvana Lúcio Nogueira
Menezes, Alexandre Augusto de Lara
Keywords: Primates - common marmoset;Common marmoset - Scent-marking behavior;Primatas - saguis Comuns;Saguis Comuns - Comportamento
Issue Date: 2006
Citation: SOUSA, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro de ; MOURA, Silvana Lúcio Nogueira ; MENEZES, Alexandre Augusto de Lara. Circadian Variation with a Diurnal Bimodal Profile on Scent-Marking Behavior in Captive Common Marmosets (Callitrhix jacchus). International Journal of Primatology , USA, v. 27, n. 1, p. 263-272, 2006
Abstract: Scent-marking behavior is associated with different behavioral contexts in callitrichids, including signalizing a territory, location of feeding resources, and social rank. In marmosets and tamarins it is also associated with intersexual communication. Though it appears very important for the daily routine of the individuals, very few researchers have investigated distribution through the 24-h cycle. In a preliminary report, we described a preferential incidence of this behavior 2 h before nocturnal rest in families of common marmosets. We expand the data using 8 family groups (28 subjects), 8 fathers, 6 mothers, 8 nonreproductive adults (4 sons and 4 daughters), and 6 juvenile (3 sons and 3 daughters) offspring that we kept in outdoor cages under natural environmental conditions. We recorded the frequency of anogenital scent marking for each group during the light phase, twice a wk, for 4 consecutive wks, from March 1998 to September 1999. Cosinor test detected 24- and 8-h variations in 89.3% and 85.7% of the subjects, respectively, regardless of sex or reproductive status. The 8-h component is a consequence of the 2 peaks for the behavior, at the beginning and end of the light phase. Daily distribution of scent marking is similar to that others described previously for motor activity in marmosets. The coincident rhythmical patterns for both behaviors seem to be associated with feeding behavior, as described for callitrichids in free-ranging conditions, involving an increase in foraging activities early in the morning and shortly before nocturnal rest
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